Subscribe to VETERINARY PRACTICE NEWS   SUBSCRIBER SERVICES   
VPN Logo   
 Home   About Us   Contact Us
 

Animal Neurology Exam Coldwater MI

The four stages require a functional spinal cord and a functional brain, and they help us determine a lesion's severity. Reflexes tell us only where the lesion is localized.

Burlingame Loren E Dvm
(517) 741-7885
727 N Broadway St
Union City, MI

Data Provided by:
Athens Animal Clinic
(269) 729-4186
345 E Mill St
Athens, MI

Data Provided by:
Breton Village Animal Clinic
(616) 929-0956
1852 Breton Road S.E.
Grand Rapids, MI
Hours
Monday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 7:30 AM - 12:00 PM
Friday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 9:00 AM - 1:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery

Cascade Hospital for Animals
(616) 818-7319
6730 Cascade Rd. SE
Grand Rapids, MI
Hours
Monday 7:30 AM - 7:00 PM
Tuesday 7:30 AM - 7:00 PM
Wednesday 7:30 AM - 7:00 PM
Thursday 7:30 AM - 7:00 PM
Friday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Sunday 10:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery

Woodside Veterinary and Holistic Healing
(248) 397-5046
27452 Woodward Ave
Royal Oak, MI
Hours
Monday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 8:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Thursday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Friday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Flea Control, Animal Microchipping, Bird Vet, Declawing, Exotic Animal Vet, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Colon Animal Clinic
(269) 432-3610
490 S Burr Oak Rd
Colon, MI

Data Provided by:
Rockford Animal Hospital
(616) 284-1200
9937 Northland Dr. NE
Rockford, MI
Promotion
Free Nail Trim per pet once every 12 months. Can not be combined with any other offer.
Hours
Monday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Tuesday 8:00 AM - 7:30 PM
Wednesday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Thursday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Friday 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Saturday Closed
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Flea Control, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Docking, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary House Calls, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Village Animal Clinic
(248) 369-6286
34415 Grand River Ave
Farmington, MI
Promotion
Call us to schedule an appointment for your pet!
Hours
Monday 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 9:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 9:00 AM - 1:00 PM
Sunday 9:00 AM - 2:00 PM
Services
Animal Flea Control, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Exotic Animal Vet, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Reptile Vet, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Docking, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery

St Julian's Cat Care
(313) 409-8877
444 N Telegraph Rd
Dearborn, MI
Hours
Monday 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Tuesday 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Wednesday 10:00 AM - 7:00 PM
Thursday Closed
Friday 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Saturday 9:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary House Calls, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Bay Area 24hr Pet Hospital
(231) 335-7934
844 E. Front Street
Traverse City, MI
Hours
Monday 24 Hours
Tuesday 24 Hours
Wednesday 24 Hours
Thursday 24 Hours
Friday 24 Hours
Saturday 24 Hours
Sunday 24 Hours
Services
24-Hour Vet, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Small Animal Vet, Veterinarians, Veterinary Cropping, Veterinary Docking, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Data Provided by:

Making Sense of the Neuro Exam

The neurological exam seems to be one of the most confusing concepts in veterinary medicine. Let’s try to clarify things. To simplify, we will focus on the hind legs only.

One way to look at the neuro exam is to divide it into an assessment of “the four stages” and an evaluation of four reflexes.

The patellar reflex causes extension of the stifle. Photo courtesy of Dr. Phil Zeltzman.
The four stages require a functional spinal cord and a functional brain, and they help us determine a lesion’s severity. Reflexes tell us only where the lesion is localized.

Since I am a surgeon and not a neurologist, I talked to Todd Bishop, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM (neurology), of Upstate Veterinary Specialties in Latham, N.Y., to ensure the accuracy of the following information.

Decline Into Nociception

Patients might go through four stages between normalcy and being paralyzed with no deep pain:

  • First-stage patients may feel back pain. They can exhibit pain by vocalizing. Certain breeds, such as beagles, are especially good at expressing their feelings. Others may arch their back.
    .
  • As they get worse, patients may become ataxic or lose proprioception. When a patient knuckles, or doesn’t reposition a flipped paw within a couple of seconds, we say he has proprioceptive deficits.
    .
  • The next step is loss of conscious motor function. This means voluntary motion of the hind legs is weak, even if helped by a sling.
    .
  • The last step is loss of pain sensation, or nociception. It is tested by using a hemostat to pinch a toe. Though nobody enjoys performing this test, doing it correctly is critical. We are trying to cause a painful reaction by stimulating the periosteum of the phalanges.

When a deep pain sensation is present, the patient should have a voluntary reaction such as whining, trying to bite or moving away from the painful stimulus. A very stoic patient may show only dilatation of the pupils.

The order of these four stages is fixed. They occur in the same order and always return in the reverse order. Therefore, there is no need to crush a toe in a patient who has motor function. If he has motor function, he has deep pain by definition. Purists will argue that this is not true with a “spinal walker,” but let’s keep things simple.

The Spinal Cord

The cranial tibial reflex causes flexion of the hock. Photo courtesy of Dr. Phil Zeltzman.
Incidentally, these four stages correlate with the anatomy of the spinal cord. Nerve fibers involved with proprioception are located superficially in the cord. This explains why a mild lesion has mild effects on the patient.

A deeper lesion will affect the nerve fibers that control motor function. And a very severe lesion will apply pressure in the deepest nerve fibers—those that relay deep pain.

These four stages help us determine the severity of the lesion. A dog with proprioceptive deficits is mildly affected. At the other end of the spectrum, a dog with n...

Copyright 2009 BowTie Inc.

Click here to read the rest of this article from Veterinary Practice News