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Animal Neurology Exam Mableton GA

The four stages require a functional spinal cord and a functional brain, and they help us determine a lesion's severity. Reflexes tell us only where the lesion is localized.

Chastain Animal Clinic
(678) 439-8938
2787 South Cobb Drive
Smyrna , GA
Hours
Monday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 7:30 AM - 7:00 PM
Wednesday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 7:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 1:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery

Pharr Road Animal Hospital
(404) 497-8813
553 Pharr Road
Atlanta, GA
Hours
Monday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 1:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Flea Control, Animal Microchipping, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Averill Animal Hospital
(770) 450-1090
415 Villa Rica Way SW
Marietta, GA
Promotion
We are offering $10 off grooming the entire month of December!

Call Now To Make Appointments!
Hours
Monday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 7:30 AM - 12:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Cropping, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Docking, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary House Calls, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

VCA Buckhead Animal Hospital
(404) 939-6957
1911 Piedmont Circle NE
Atlanta, GA
Hours
Monday 8:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 8:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 8:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 8:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 8:30 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:30 AM - 12:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Flea Control, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Belle Isle Animal Hospital
(678) 960-8782
216 E Belle Isle Rd NE
Atlanta, GA
Promotion
Come by and take a tour of our beautiful new hospital anytime. We would love to meet you and your pets. New clients get 10% off services on their first visit. Products excluded.
Hours
Monday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 2:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary House Calls, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Cat Care of Vinings
(404) 382-9882
4691 South Atlanta Road
Smyrna, GA
Hours
Monday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 7:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Thursday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery

Community Animal Clinic of South Paulding
(678) 568-9968
105 Brownsville Road
Powder Springs, GA
Hours
Monday 7:30 AM - 7:30 PM
Tuesday 7:30 AM - 7:30 PM
Wednesday 7:30 AM - 5:00 PM
Thursday 7:30 AM - 7:30 PM
Friday 7:30 AM - 3:00 PM
Saturday Closed
Sunday 11:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Services
Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary House Calls, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

VCA Pets Are People Too Veterinary Hospital
(404) 857-0695
1510 Piedmont Avenue
Atlanta, GA
Hours
Monday 24 Hours
Tuesday 24 Hours
Wednesday 24 Hours
Thursday 24 Hours
Friday 24 Hours
Saturday 24 Hours
Sunday 24 Hours
Services
24-Hour Vet, Animal Boarding, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Emergency Veterinary Clinic, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Bankhead Animal Hospital
(770) 927-7846
4015 Bankhead Hwy
Douglasville, GA
Hours
Monday 9:00 AM - 6:30 PM
Tuesday 9:00 AM - 6:30 PM
Wednesday 9:00 AM - 6:30 PM
Thursday 9:00 AM - 6:30 PM
Friday 9:00 AM - 6:30 PM
Saturday Closed
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary House Calls, Veterinary Medical Specialties, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Montrose Animal Hospital
(770) 648-3107
1028 Woodlawn Dr NE
Marietta, GA
Hours
Monday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Tuesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Wednesday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Thursday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Friday 7:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Saturday 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM
Sunday Closed
Services
Animal Boarding, Animal Daycare, Animal Flea Control, Animal Grooming, Animal Microchipping, Declawing, Holistic Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Vet, Spaying/Neutering, Veterinarians, Veterinary Dentistry, Veterinary Euthanasia, Veterinary Surgery, Veterinary Vaccinations

Making Sense of the Neuro Exam

The neurological exam seems to be one of the most confusing concepts in veterinary medicine. Let’s try to clarify things. To simplify, we will focus on the hind legs only.

One way to look at the neuro exam is to divide it into an assessment of “the four stages” and an evaluation of four reflexes.

The patellar reflex causes extension of the stifle. Photo courtesy of Dr. Phil Zeltzman.
The four stages require a functional spinal cord and a functional brain, and they help us determine a lesion’s severity. Reflexes tell us only where the lesion is localized.

Since I am a surgeon and not a neurologist, I talked to Todd Bishop, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM (neurology), of Upstate Veterinary Specialties in Latham, N.Y., to ensure the accuracy of the following information.

Decline Into Nociception

Patients might go through four stages between normalcy and being paralyzed with no deep pain:

  • First-stage patients may feel back pain. They can exhibit pain by vocalizing. Certain breeds, such as beagles, are especially good at expressing their feelings. Others may arch their back.
    .
  • As they get worse, patients may become ataxic or lose proprioception. When a patient knuckles, or doesn’t reposition a flipped paw within a couple of seconds, we say he has proprioceptive deficits.
    .
  • The next step is loss of conscious motor function. This means voluntary motion of the hind legs is weak, even if helped by a sling.
    .
  • The last step is loss of pain sensation, or nociception. It is tested by using a hemostat to pinch a toe. Though nobody enjoys performing this test, doing it correctly is critical. We are trying to cause a painful reaction by stimulating the periosteum of the phalanges.

When a deep pain sensation is present, the patient should have a voluntary reaction such as whining, trying to bite or moving away from the painful stimulus. A very stoic patient may show only dilatation of the pupils.

The order of these four stages is fixed. They occur in the same order and always return in the reverse order. Therefore, there is no need to crush a toe in a patient who has motor function. If he has motor function, he has deep pain by definition. Purists will argue that this is not true with a “spinal walker,” but let’s keep things simple.

The Spinal Cord

The cranial tibial reflex causes flexion of the hock. Photo courtesy of Dr. Phil Zeltzman.
Incidentally, these four stages correlate with the anatomy of the spinal cord. Nerve fibers involved with proprioception are located superficially in the cord. This explains why a mild lesion has mild effects on the patient.

A deeper lesion will affect the nerve fibers that control motor function. And a very severe lesion will apply pressure in the deepest nerve fibers—those that relay deep pain.

These four stages help us determine the severity of the lesion. A dog with proprioceptive deficits is mildly affected. At the other end of the spectrum, a dog with n...

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